Let us say that we had a fantastic trip. It was even better than we had hoped for. We want to thank you for all of your help in planning the trip and making sure that all of the details were taken care of for us. Thank you. Guide Altai and driver Ganbaa are excellent. You are the best!~ Lisa and Tom, USA
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If you are going to travel in summer days, it better to put on following clothes: Warm clothes like warm sweater with waterproof and wind protection, warm socks, sturdy hiking boots (for hiking), summer gloves (for riding horses), t-shirt, shirts, trausers, sandals, light rain coat, sunglasses, wide brimmed hat will keep the sun off your face, money belt for your valuables /travelers' cheques, passport and cash/. Sarong or light towels or long shirts are good for avoid indecent exposure when going to toilet in open fields...
Specialists on the history of Mongolia from many countries have proved that it goes back over 2000 years. Mongolian archaeologists have discovered 500,000 year-old stone implements that are the remains of Mongolia 's earliest inhabitants. Since the early primitive communal era, Mongols had lived independently in the neighborhood of such nomadic tribes as Turk and Khamnigan.
In 209 BC, the Huns, who were by origin from ancient nomadic tribes such as Xianyu, Xianyung, Hun yi and Di, set up the first state in Central Asia. The Hun State was equal in power to the Chinese states of Tsin and Han. Khan, the sovereign of the State of Han Xiao Wendi wrote to Shan Yu of the Hun State in Laoshan: "in accordance with the decree of his Majesty, the state situated to the north of the Great Wall shall be governed by the decrees of Shan Yu, and the territory situated to the south of the Great Wall, peopled by those who wear tushmed belts and caps, shall be governed by me. Both the State of the Huns and the State of Han are powerful neighbor states".
The territory of the Huns was vast and extended to the Great Wall in the South, the Lake of Baikal in the North, Hingan Hills in the East and Erchis river in the West. The State maintained wide diplomatic, cultural and trade relations with the neighboring countries. In the middle of the first century AD the Hun State split into North and South. The Southern Huns established within the Great Wall the states of Han and Xia, which existed until the 1Oth century, while the Northern Huns migrated to East Europe and settled down there by the 4th-5th centuries AD.
Between the 3rd-6th centuries the territory of the Hun State was occupied successively by the states of Xianbi and Jhou Jhan, and Chinese historians noted the power of these states was equal to that of the Huns.
During the 7th-lOth centuries, the present Mongolian territory was inhabited by the Turkic, Uighur and Kirghiz tribes. But there is little information historic documents about the life of the Mongols at this period.
During the 9th-10th centuries, the Kidans, who were a Mongolian -speaking tribe, established in the north of China a Great Liao State . At this time of the Kidans (Liao), the Chinese tribal states for the first time submitted to foreign supremacy, and the Chinese Khan officially recognized the Kidan Khan as "his father", and thus himself as "a son".
During the 11th-12th centuries, the Mongol tribes came into history under the names Whole Mongolia , Tatar, Kerait, Jalair. These neighboring tribes had their own rulers and were constantly fighting with each other. At this time of intertribal struggle, a Mongol chieftain called Temudjin gathered various tribes under his leadership, named his state " Mongolia ", and renamed himself "Genghis Khan". The difficult process of establishing the Mongolian State was finely described in the famous Mongolian document "Nuuts Tovchoo" (Secret History of the Mongols). In the 13th century Mongolia was one of the most powerful states in the world. All major world trade and political relations went through the capital of Mongolia of that time, Kara Khorino (which is situated in the present territory of the Mongolia ), and the flow of ambassadors from France, sons of Georgian and Armenian sovereigns, Russian princes, and Chinese officials was unceasing. After having established the state, following the custom of the ancient nomads, Genghis Khan undertook campaigns against the neighboring states.
As a result of the wars undertaken by Genghis Khan and his successors with the purpose of "conquering the whole world" Mongolia became a powerful empire, extending from the East China Sea to Western Europe, covering vast areas of Europe and Asia. After the death of the last Mongolian Emperor Mongke in 1259, the Mongol Empire broke up into the Golden Horde of Batuu Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson), inhabiting the Russian Kipchak steppe; the Kingdom of Tsagadai (Genghis Khan's son), who had conquered East Turkestan and Uzbek, and the Yuan State of Khubilai Khan, which included the Mongolian and Chinese territories.
The wars waged by the Mongols resulted in the dispersal of the Mongolian tribes, a considerable reduction in the size of the Mongolian population, and the destruction of a lot of cities and villages in the conquered countries. But on the other hand, these wars precipitated the process of unification of various Asian and European tribes, and drew East and West nearer together, something that had never been done before.
After the defeat in 1367 of the Mongolian Yuan State by the Chinese Min State , the Mongolian Khans returned from Beijing to their native territory. At this time Mongolia ceased to be the center of world trade and culture, but the Mongols retained their home territory.
During the 14th and 15th centuries, the Mongols lost their previous unity and were divided into Eastern Mongols and Western Mongols (Oirat Mongols). Then in the 16th century the Eastern Mongols split up into Outer Mongolia (Khalh Mongolia ) and Inner Mongolia . The Mongols waged war on each other, and dominance went first to Oirat Mongolia and then to East Mongolia . East Mongolia was the more powerful. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Zurchid tribe of Manchurians became powerful and established the State of Chin. The Manchurians subdued Inner Mongolia in the 1630s, Khalh Mongolia in 1691 and Oirat Mongolia in 1757.
The 17th-20th century period was the most tragic for the Mongols. In fact, the Manchurians cut off the Mongolian State from world civilization for many centuries, and the Mongols remained as if on the inside of an inverted copper pot. At the beginning of the 20th century, the movement for the renascence of the Mongolian State led by Bogdo Khan spread widely like a fire, but was suppressed in 1911 by the Manchurian colonial domination. The Mongolian people led by Khalh Mongolian Javzandamba Khutagt (Bogdo Khan) established the Khanate uniting religion and state, and intended to unite all Mongolian-speaking people. But this aim remained unfulfilled because of the expansionist policy of the Tsarist Russia and China . In 1919 the Chinese government grossly violated the Russian, Chinese and Mongolian tripartite treaty of 1915, and with the aid of armed forces conquered the Mongolian State . This precipitated again the upsurge of the national liberation movement in the country, and so in 1921 Khalh Mongols under the direction of S. Danzan, D. Bodoo, and D. Sukhbaatar liberated our territory from the foreign conquerors and won our freedom.
From 1921-1924 Mongolia was a republican Monarchy. In 1924, however, it became a Soviet-style Republic with one-party system which lasted until 1990.
The winds of the European democratic changes of the late 1980s also came to the country. New democratic and freedom parties were created, and a peaceful, democratic revolution changed the country's political system. In July of 1990, the first democratic general election took place in Mongolia, and it has become, finally, a parliamentary republic with president and multi-party system. At present, Mongolia is making a transition from the centrally-planned economy to free market system.
Quatated from /Compiled by Surenguin Badral/
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